Features of the structure of ferns, life cycle, useful properties, use in medicine

Ferns are very beautiful plants, however, not everyone knows the structural features of ferns and their physiology. This article provides a brief description and photographs of this culture.


  • Fern is an amazing plant, description and photo
  • Features of the structure of the fern and its rhizome
  • Life cycle, sporophytes and gameophytes
  • What structural and physiological features of ferns did not allow them to spread
  • The value of ferns in medicine, useful properties

Fern is an amazing plant, description and photo

Ferns belong to the genus Osmundovs. It is a very beautiful herbaceous plant native to Asian countries. At the moment, in the wild, the plant grows in the Philippines, China, Ukraine and the Russian Federation.

Ferns live mainly in forests, especially in the humid tropics. It is thanks to moisture that the plant reproduces well.

Ferns have:

  • rhizome;
  • stem;
  • leaves (foliage is also called frond).

The leaves initially have the shape of a snail's shell, as they are slightly curled, then they unwind and fully unfold, forming a flat shape.

The size of the leaves depends on the shape and type of the fern. The tropical fern has a whole and dissected leaf shape. Foliage can range in size from four centimeters to five meters. In some cases, ferns can resemble vines with a high stem and large leaves, up to thirty meters long is possible.

There are also tree-like forms that resemble trees, with an approximate height of 10 m or more. In this case, the foliage and stem are curly.

Let's watch an interesting video about ferns growing in nature:

Features of the structure of the fern and its rhizome

The fern structure is unique and very different from other cultures. In addition to the leaves and the stem, there is a rhizome from which the roots extend. The size of the root system ranges from 20 centimeters to 1 meter. It all depends on where the plant is located.

Foliage is the aerial part of a plant that grows indefinitely. There are brown bumps on the inside of the foliage.

If you look at this part under a microscope, you can see the shape of small umbrellas. These tubercles are the cover of sacs that contain spores. Ferns multiply due to spores. Spore germination occurs only on moist soil.

Life cycle, sporophytes and gameophytes

Each fern alternates between sexual and asexual generations of hematophyte and sporophyte. The sporophytic phase is predominant, most often perennial ferns.

Sporangia forms in the lower part of the leaves, spores appear in them. When plants are in a favorable climate, spores begin to germinate, and small plates are formed from them - outgrowths.

They are hematophytes, in ferns they are often bisexual, that is, they have both male and female reproductive organs, in which both sperm and eggs appear. The fertilization process is carried out in a small amount of water.

The zygote is needed for the development of the embryo, which gradually takes root. A sporophyte is formed from the embryo. Some fern species have spores of different sizes, such plants are called multi-spore plants. Male spores are very small, these are microspores, when they germinate, a male gametophyte is formed, and after a while, organs that produce male cells appear on it.

Female spores are large, they are called megaspores, a female gametophyte is formed on them, these spores create eggs. When useful substances accumulate in spores, this creates a beneficial environment for plants of different spores, as a result, hematophytes acquire intra-pore development, trying to accumulate useful substances.

Due to the rapid development, the fertilization process takes place earlier than usual, and the cycle ends much faster. Diverse ferns are resistant to environmental changes.

Let's watch an interesting video about the structural features of the fern and its life cycle:

What structural and physiological features of ferns did not allow them to spread

Ferns are unable to spread for the following reasons:

  • Unlike seed plants, ferns have a poorly developed root and conduction system, for this reason growth slows down, and thus they lose to other crops.
  • Spores, unlike seeds, are less protected, and many of them die before being reborn into a gametophyte.
  • For reproduction, water is required, for this reason ferns are not able to grow and fertilize in arid places.

The value of ferns in medicine, useful properties

The fern has beneficial properties due to its composition, which includes:

  • starch
  • carotene
  • vitamin B2 and E
  • alkaloids
  • riboflavin
  • tannins.

In medicine, it is actively used as an anthelmintic.

In folk medicine, plants are effectively used to treat purulent wounds, male rheumatism, eliminate seizures and ulcers.

The tincture is made only on the basis of the root system, used for external use. Fern should be used with caution, since in some cases it is contraindicated and can cause serious harm to the body. In particular, it is worth exercising caution in patients with tuberculosis, with anemia and with kidney disease.

So the fern is a very beautiful green plant. If the plant is used as a remedy, be sure to consult a doctor!

Watch the video: The Fern Life Cycle (July 2021).