The main types of bacteria living in the soil and their names

The main types of bacteria living in the soil and their names

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Bacteria are an integral part of the soil, and to be precise, its fertile layer - humus. This was the home of the first soil bacteria.

Thus, bacteria and microorganisms live in the soil to this day, gradually adapting to constantly changing environmental conditions. What kind of bacteria live in the soil, and help fermentation and decay occur, we will analyze in the article.


  • The main types of bacteria
  • Why destructors are needed
  • What are nitrogen-fixing bacteria
  • The meaning of chemolitic peat

The main types of bacteria

In microbiology, there is a specific classification of microbes that live in soil. This is due to the function that they perform. Let's take a look at the main types.

Destructors are bacteria that live in the soil. Their main goal is to decompose organic compounds that have got into it, especially in the upper layer. Thus, the task of destructors is to transform the remains of vital activity that have been left by animals or plants into inorganic compounds. Nodule bacteria, also called nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

Only with the help of nitrogen, which enters the soil, can plants be assimilated. Thus, this type of plant helps to enrich the mineral composition of the plants that are in your area.

Chemoautotrophs are another important bacteria found in soil. These bacteria collect inorganic compounds and convert them into organic matter, using the energy that comes from the bacteria itself. Chemoautotrophs belong to the section of autotrophs, the main purpose of which is the accumulation of inorganic substances around them, and assistance in their assimilation by plants.

In addition to these most famous bacteria, there are many others. But, they do not play such an important role in relation to the processes that occur in the soil on a daily basis, which are important for the normal growth and development of plants.

Why destructors are needed

The destructors include a huge colony of bacteria that constantly lives in the soil. This includes both bacteria that breathe oxygen and those that feed on other processes. The main condition by which destructors are classified is the ability to decompose organic compounds.

Therefore, this includes not only bacteria, but also beetles, ants and termites. It is they who decompose large accumulations of organic matter into smaller ones, with which bacteria of this kind already work. Representatives of destructors can be found both in the root area and in deeper balls of the soil, where oxygen does not get at all.

What are nitrogen-fixing bacteria

One of the groups that are most often found in the soil is nitrogen-fixing, or nodule bacteria. It is with their help that you can saturate the soil with nitrogen as quickly as possible, which will have a positive effect on the yield of this site. The main representatives of the group are Rhizobium, but there are many more similar bacteria that are often used by farmers and gardeners.

The essence of the action of nitrogen-fixing bacteria is that they form a small growth on the root system of the plant, through which nutrients, nitrogen and converted ammonia are perfectly absorbed and assimilated. In return, the bacterium receives constant nourishment, which helps it to successfully continue its vital activity.

Also, bacteria of this type carry out symbiosis with plants of a certain area, as a result of which anaerobic conditions are created. And this is another task of nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

The meaning of chemolitic peat

Chemolittorphs are a unique and unique class of bacteria. Only they have the ability to process non-organic substances, turning them into organic matter. Their importance is very difficult to overestimate, since these bacteria are simply irreplaceable, and if they cease to perform their function, then no other bacteria will cope with their role.

Video about beneficial bacteria found in the soil:

To date, several varieties of these bacteria are distinguished:

  1. Nitrifying agents - the main purpose of which is to include nitrogen in organic compounds of plants. Sulfur oxidants - include inorganic sulfur in organic compounds.
  2. Iron bacteria - typical only for soil with high acidity. They incorporate iron into organic compounds. Hydrogen and carboxybacteria - alter hydrogen and carbon dioxide.

The pathogenicity of this group of bacteria is that they contribute to the processes of decay. By themselves, they do not have pathogenic varieties. The group also does not use organic compounds as food. A large number of bacteria and microorganisms live in the soil, which have already become their indispensable components. All of them are important in order for the plants to grow quickly, while receiving all the necessary substances.

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