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The ecological situation near large cities is not always conducive to the collection of forest mushrooms. Most often, mushrooms and oyster mushrooms are grown for these purposes.
In addition to personal needs, it is possible to organize small-scale production of oyster mushrooms for sale to the population. If the cultivation of oyster mushrooms turns out to be profitable, then over time they can be cultivated on an industrial scale. It remains to find out what these mushrooms are good for, how to choose a room for growing oyster mushrooms.
- Oyster mushrooms, description, benefits
- Room for oyster mushrooms
- Features of arranging a room for growing oyster mushrooms
Oyster mushrooms, description, benefits
In nature, several species of oyster mushrooms grow, which are part of the genus Oyster mushrooms from the Oyster mushrooms family. Almost all oyster mushrooms live on weakened deciduous trees or their dead remains. In nature, oyster mushrooms appear from May to October. The fungus tolerates low temperatures well, so the greatest yield is in September or October.
For growing in artificial conditions, oyster mushroom is most often used. The fruit body of the oyster mushroom is rather large. The hats are most often shaped like an ear. The size of the cap is from 5 to 15 cm. It is preferable to eat young fruit bodies with a cap size of up to 7 cm. In adult fruit bodies, the caps take the shape of a funnel.
The color of the caps ranges from light gray to dark gray with a purple tint. Legs are white, curved, very often have a common base. Sometimes up to 30 fruiting bodies can form on this basis. The older the mushroom, the stiffer the leg; when cooking oyster mushrooms, such legs are removed.
The nutritional value of oyster mushrooms deserves attention, since these mushrooms have a high protein content of up to 25%. In terms of its quantity and the content of essential amino acids, oyster mushrooms are second only to peas and soybeans. After heat treatment of the fruit bodies, the proteins of this fungus are assimilated by the body by 70%, which is comparable to the assimilation of bread proteins from rye flour.
Oyster mushrooms are a source of vitamins, minerals, statins and other beneficial compounds. For year-round cultivation of oyster mushrooms in an intensive way, you need:
- suitable premises
- bags or other containers
- auxiliary equipment
It remains to figure out how to choose and equip a room for self-cultivation of oyster mushrooms.
Room for oyster mushrooms
The whole process of growing oyster mushrooms can be started when there is a room in which special conditions can be created for the development of mycelium and the formation of fruit bodies. The room for oyster mushrooms can be located both underground and on its surface. Garages and basements are suitable for small-scale production. Hangars, premises of old farms are suitable for industrial cultivation.
Considering that oyster mushroom is capable of aggressive destruction of any wood, it is desirable that the walls and floor of the selected building or its parts are not made of natural wood.
If it is not possible to choose a brick or concrete structure, then the wooden walls can be sewn up with insulating panels, smooth slate, and the wooden floors can be tiled or poured with concrete. In the most extreme case, the floors are covered with sand. However, sand in this case will be the worst option.
Important! In the premises for growing oyster mushrooms, it must be possible to maintain a certain humidity and temperature. Also, the room needs a system for air ventilation. An important characteristic of a room for oyster mushroom production is its height.
You should not choose buildings where the ceiling height is less than 2 m, it is best if their height is 3-3.5 m. A mandatory requirement for a room for growing mushrooms is that people should not live in it. It is advisable not to grow oyster mushrooms at all where the living area is connected to the part for the production of mushroom products.
Video about growing oyster mushrooms at home:
The number of required sq. meters is determined by the scale of future production. An approximate calculation can be made as follows, for every 50 kg of substrate, one square meter is needed. square meter.
Features of arranging a room for growing oyster mushrooms
Ventilation and lighting
The ventilation system must be equipped so that the air in the room is constantly renewed, therefore, both supply and exhaust ventilation are needed. Oyster mushrooms need a constant supply of fresh air.
Despite the fact that mushrooms do not need bright sunlight, it is still necessary to organize lighting in the room with fluorescent lamps at the rate of one lamp with a brightness of 90 lux per 20 square meters. meters. Daily daylight hours should be between 10 and 12 hours.
Temperature and humidity
To maintain the optimal temperature in the room at + 11+ 16 degrees, any heat source is suitable:
- coal stove
Currently, the so-called bubofani ovens are popular for long burning. These boilers are equipped with primary and secondary combustion chambers, and craftsmen arrange such furnaces in cylinders from household gas.
The room must be equipped with a water supply system. It is best to maintain the humidity in it at 90% using special fogging units. Another requirement for the premises for harvesting oyster mushrooms relates to disinfection.
All parts of the room should be sufficiently easy to disinfect. Based on all the requirements for the room, it must be concluded that at the first stage of organizing the production of oyster mushrooms, some material costs will be required to purchase the necessary equipment.