The staircase to the basement is a special design that must comply with all building rules and regulations. It will not be difficult to do it yourself if you correctly perform the calculation and make a solid foundation.
- Basement stairs: options
- Materials and tools for work
- Step-by-step instructions: the main stages of work
Basement stairs: options
The stairs to the basement can be made of wood or metal construction. It is not recommended to build a wooden staircase with high humidity in the basement. Dampness negatively affects the fungus. The best option is a metal staircase. It is durable, moisture resistant and easy to install. There is also a third option - a concrete staircase. It is desirable to build it at the stage of building a house. This type of descent into the basement is rarely used.
When choosing a material, it is necessary to take into account the location of the entrance and the humidity in the room. If the staircase to the basement has an entrance from the street, then the material must be chosen durable, since the structure can be exposed to the effects of the external environment. It is important to consider many factors regarding the construction of a staircase to the basement:
- Basement area
- Basement use frequency
- Comfortable and safe stair climbing
- Moving large items
- Basement entrance location
In addition, the design must match the overall interior. The staircase should not take up much space, therefore, during its construction, it is necessary to correctly make all the calculations, determine the configuration, place and size. Options for the device of stairs for descending into the basement:
- Marching design. The simplest straight staircase. Installed in a basement that is at least 4 meters in size.
- Spiral staircase. Less comfortable ladder, but compact. The steps are very narrow and high. This design is not suitable for carrying bulky items.
- Intermediate platform design. L and U-shaped design is not very long. Can be built in a small basement. However, due to the large width and span, such a structure is not convenient to operate.
Requirements for the construction of stairs
When constructing a staircase with your own hands, it is necessary to make the correct calculations: the slope, the size of the steps, the width, the size of the tread. The basement descent can be face and back. The tilt angle can be increased up to 60 degrees. If the staircase is steep according to the drawing, then it is necessary to increase the width of the tread.
The size of the tread can be different and adjusted to suit the entire structure. Usually the size of the tread is 20 cm. The optimal width of the ladder for descending one person is 70-80 cm. The size of the structure can be increased for the movement of two people - up to 90-100 cm. The length of the ladder is determined by the ground level. You can determine the length of the stairs by the position of the basement overlap.
The height of the step, i.e. the thickness of the tread and the riser can be increased up to 25 cm. This will increase the angle of inclination and save space. When constructing a single-flight staircase, the number of steps should be 18-20. To calculate the height of the steps, divide the height of the stairs by 18.
Video on how to build a staircase to the basement:
The size of a human step is about 150-170 cm, and the length of the foot is 27-30 cm.Based on these indicators, the height of one step should be 15 cm, and its width should be about 30 cm.According to the rules, the steps of one march should be the same and differ from each other just a few millimeters from a friend. When arranging stairs with handrails, their height should be about 90 cm, and the distance between the posts should be 15 cm.
Materials and tools for work
To build a staircase, you will need the following materials:
- Reinforced concrete march
- Metal beams
Elements of a wooden structure (the width of the beams is 30-40 mm, and the thickness is not more than 25 mm)
From the effects of negative external factors, waterproofing materials and antifungal agents should be used. For the construction of the stairs, you need to prepare the following tools:
- Welding machine
The walls for the descent into the basement are erected from concrete blocks or monolithic concrete. Leave a small space between the ends of the staircase walls and the outer wall.
Step-by-step instructions: the main stages of work
Immediately before the construction of the stairs, you need to process the materials with your own hands. If the construction of a wooden structure is planned, then it is treated with a special antiseptic. The kosour beam is cut to obtain the desired length of the ladder. Next, the openings for the steps are cut out in the stringer. After that, the height of the approach and the width of the tread are noted. In this case, 2-4 cm should be subtracted.
On the inside of the beam, make the appropriate markings and cut off the excess part with a jigsaw. The upper part of the stringer should rest against the platform, and the lower part against the floor. Next, the stringers are connected with a beam using anchor bolts.
Using a cutter, cut holes in one string and attach to the wall using anchors. The string and string must be correctly positioned and level. There should be no slope at the steps. After calculating the required number of steps, the beam is sawn, leveled and sanded.
Then putty them and, if necessary, can be hidden using decorative elements. After installing the risers, the steps are made. They are installed on top of the steps and self-tapping screws or screws are used for fastening. Next, take a construction hairpin 10 cm long and 0.8 cm thick and attach the baluster to the steps.
At the final stage, you can start installing the stairs. In the ground, i.e. at the bottom of the floor, mark the location of the installation end by measuring 20 cm more. Then a hole is dug, a ladder is installed, covered with stones and tamped. After preparing the cement mortar, crushed stone is poured and waiting for complete drying. If the floor is concrete, then a hole should be made and a piece of reinforcement should be tightly driven there so that 4-5 cm remain at the top. The ladder is fastened to the reinforcement using a clamp.
The basement staircase requires a handrail. You can do without this element if there are no more than 5 steps on the stairs. It is necessary to install the railings at such a height that a person of any height can lean on them. The handrails are mounted on brackets. Making a staircase with your own hands is not difficult, the main thing is to observe all stages of work.