The fig plant is known to many for its sweet and delicious fruit. But few people know that figs and indoor ficus are relatives, and we will try to figure out how to grow figs in the garden in the article.
- Description of the species
- Where to plant figs?
- How to shelter figs in the garden for the winter?
Description of the species
Fig is a representative of the Ficus genus. Due to its fruits, it has several names:
- Fig tree
- Fig tree
In the wild, it grows in subtropical climates:
- Of Africa
Fig is a vigorous deciduous shrub or tree. The leaves are large, divided, tough. Flowers of two types:
- figs, female flowers
- capriffigs, male flowers
They develop in the axils of leaves of different trees. After fertilization, fruits are formed in the place of the female flowers. The shape of the figs is pear-shaped, the flesh is very sweet, and at the top there is a peephole covered with scales. The coloring is the most varied:
- black - blue
- yellow - green
Fresh figs contain up to 12 grams of sugars, and dried ones - up to 70. Therefore, they are a high-calorie food product.
In regions of Russia with a cold climate, figs have been grown as a houseplant since the end of the 18th century. When grown indoors, the plant also sheds its leaves and may even set fruit. But it turns out that you can grow a thermophilic plant in open ground. It is only important to choose the right place.
Where to plant figs?
In warm climates, figs yield up to three harvests per year. But even in those regions where freezing temperatures in winter reach minus 25 degrees, it can withstand the winter period and even give a harvest of sweet figs. The main condition is the right place. The main requirement is maximum sunlight. Up to 10 - 12 hours a day, the plant should be in the sun.
On the south side of the plant, there should be no natural or artificial barriers, such as tall plantings, buildings and structures. But from the north, west and east, such obstacles, additionally protecting the figs from cold air, must be present. Such protection, from trees and buildings, creates a certain microclimate and raises the temperature by two or even three degrees. Which improves the conditions for growing figs in the garden. The next step is to choose the right variety and prepare a place for planting the plant.
Selection of varieties and planting of figs in open ground
When choosing a variety of fig trees for planting in the garden, it should be remembered that pollination of female inflorescences is required to obtain a harvest. In natural conditions of a warm subtropical climate, a thermophilic genus of wasps copes with this task. It is almost impossible to replace it with insects more resistant to cold - pollinators. This is due to the structure of fig flowers. Therefore, for planting in Russian regions with a cooler climate, the following self-fertile varieties are suitable:
- Turkish brown, with reddish - brown fruits, which begin to ripen already in the last decade of August.
- Date Neapolitan, with purple-red figs ripening in September.
- Sabrucia is pink, partially self-fertile, early.
- Crimean black, has an extended fruiting period, fruits suitable for various processing and conservation.
To plant a seedling, you need a properly organized planting trench. The width of the trench should be up to one meter, but not less than 70 cm. The trench is dug so that a small slope from the south is obtained, the optimum depth is 120 - 150 cm. When digging a ditch, do not mix the upper fertile layer with the lower layers of the soil.
Mix the removed top soil with:
- leafy ground
- rotted manure
On top of the drainage at the bottom of the ditch, pour mounds from the resulting soil mixture. In this case, the depth of the planting trench is reduced by about 1/3 part. The seedling must be installed on a mound, straighten all the roots. When filling up a trench, the root collar can be slightly deepened into the ground.
The near-trunk circle, especially from the south, must be covered with foil, boards, to prevent the growth of weeds under a young fig tree. The trench method of planting figs will allow you to shelter it for the winter and create conditions for a successful wintering.
How to shelter figs in the garden for the winter?
After the figs have shed all the leaves in the fall, but before the onset of stable frosts, combine the nearby branches of the plant in bunches of two or three pieces and pin them to the high side of the trench with special wire hooks.
You need to cover them from above:
- spruce branches
- corn tops
On top of everything, you need to put additional:
- roofing felt
In the covering material, it is worthwhile to provide a hole for ventilation and the supply of fresh air, but if the frost has dropped below 15 - 20 degrees, then the hole should be closed.
In the spring, do not rush to open the plant. In the southern regions, the covering material can be removed in mid-April, in the northern regions - 15 days later.
Fig is an externally decorative plant with delicious fruits and leaves used in folk and official medicine. Therefore, it is worth trying and growing it in the garden yourself.
Video about the intricacies of working with fig seedlings: